RUSSIAN AVIATION KEROSENE COLONIAL GRADE 54 JET FUEL (JP54)

Jp54 is an abbreviation for “Jet Propulsion (JP) andColonial Grade 54 During the refining process only 15% of the crude oil is made up of JP54 the rest of the grade is used for different types of byproducts such as plastic.


This was developed by JP Morgan Colonial grade JP54 was replaced by AVGAS or known as AVGAS100LL, it’s the number one low sulfer content kerosene used worldwide. National standards apply for aviation fuels in many countries including Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, China, Spain and Sweden.


These are held in alignment with one of the key standards listed below.
The major civil standards used internationally are:


UK DEF STAN91-91 Jet A1
USA ASTM D1655 Jet A1, Jet A
Russia / CIS GOST 10227-86 TS-1


JP54 powers gas turbines aircraft engines. Jet A and A-1 have specifications that can be used in fuel worldwide. Jet B is used in cold weather elements. The most common fuel is an unleaded/paraffin oil-based fuel classified as JET A-1, which is produced to an internationally standardized set of specifications.


In the United States only, a version of JET A-1 known as JET A is also used.


The only other jet fuel that is commonly used in civilian aviation is called JET B. JET B is a fuel in the naptha-kerosene region that is used for its enhanced cold-weather performance. However, JET B's lighter composition makes it more dangerous to handle, and it is thus restricted only to areas where its cold-weather characteristics are absolutely necessary.


Jet fuel is a mixture of a large number of different hydrocarbons. Kerosene-type jet fuel (including Jet A and Jet A-1) has a carbon number distribution between about 8 and 16 carbon numbers (carbon atoms per molecule); wide-cut or naphtha-type jet fuel (including Jet B), between about 5 and 15 carbon numbers.


TYPE JET A-1


Jet A-1 is a kerosine grade of fuel suitable for most turbine engined aircraft. It is produced to a stringent internationally agreed standard, has a flash point above 38°C (100°F) and a freeze point maximum of -47°C. It is widely available outside the U.S.A. Jet A-1 meets the requirements of British specification DEF STAN 91-91 (Jet A-1), (formerly DERD 2494 (AVTUR)), ASTM specification D1655 (Jet A-1) and IATA Guidance Material (Kerosine Type), NATO Code F-35.


TYPE JET A


Jet A is a similar kerosine type of fuel, produced to an ASTM specification and normally only available in the U.S.A. It has the same flash point as Jet A-1 but a higher freeze point maximum (-40°C). It is supplied against the ASTM D1655 (Jet A) specification.


TYPE JET B


Jet B is a distillate covering the naphtha and kerosine fractions. It can be used as an alternative to Jet A-1 but because it is more difficult to handle (higher flammability), there is only significant demand in very cold climates where its better cold weather performance is important.


In Canada it is supplied against the Canadian Specification CAN/CGSB 3.23


MILITARY USAGE:


JP-4 is the military equivalent of Jet B with the addition of corrosion inhibitor and anti-icing additives; it meets the requirements of the U.S. Military Specification MIL-PRF-5624S Grade JP-4. JP-4 also meets the requirements of the British Specification DEF STAN 91-88 AVTAG/FSII (formerly DERD 2454),where FSII stands for Fuel Systems Icing Inhibitor. NATO Code F-40.


JP-5 is a high flash point kerosine meeting the requirements of the U.S. Military Specification MIL-PRF-5624S Grade JP-5. JP-5 also meets the requirements of the British Specification DEF STAN 91-86 AVCAT/FSII (formerly DERD 2452). NATO Code F-44.


JP-8 is the military equivalent of Jet A-1 with the addition of corrosion inhibitor and anti-icing additives; it meets the requirements of the U.S. Military Specification MIL-T-83188D. JP-8 also meets the requirements of the British Specification DEF STAN 91-87 AVTUR/FSII (formerly DERD 2453). NATO Code F-34.



JP54 SPECIFICATIONS
SPECIFICATIONS FOR RUSSIAN ORIGIN AVIATION KEROSENE JET FUEL COLONIAL GRADE 54

ADDITIVES
Antioxidant in hydro processed fuel mg/l min 17 max 24
Antioxidant non hydro processed fuel mg/l - - max 24
Static dissipater first doping ASA-3 mg/l - - max 1
Stadis 450 mg/l - - max 3
COMBUSTION PROPERTIES
Specific energy, net mj/kg min 18.4 - D4808
Smoke point mm min 19 - D1322
Luminomitter number - min 45 D1740
Naphtalenes %vol max 3 D1840
PROPERTY UNIT RESULT TEST-IP METHOD ASTM
COMPOSITION
Total Acidity mgKOH/g max 0.01 354 D3242
Aromatics %vol max 22.0 158 D1318
Sulphur, Total %mass max 0.30 107 D1266/2622
Sulphur, Mercaptan %mass max 0.003 342 D3227
Doctor, test - - - 30 D4952
VOLATILY
Initial Boiling Point Centigrade max Report 123 D96
10% vol at ºC - - 240 - - -
20% vol at ºC - - Report - - -
50% vol at ºC - - Report - - -
80% vol at ºC - max Report - - -
End point Centigrade max - 300 - -
Recovered recidules %vol max - 1.5 - -
Loss %vol max 1.5 - -
Flash Point Centigrade max - 170/303 D56/3828 -
Density at 15 ºC Kg/m2 max - 180/385 D1298 -
LOW TEMPERATURES PROPERTIES
Freezing Point Centigrade max 40 15 D2256 -
CORROSION
Corrosion, copper (2 hrs at 100ºC) - max 1 154 D130 -
Corrosion, silver (4 hrs at 50ºC) - max 1 227 - -
STABILITY
Thermal stability control, Temp. 280ºC - - 323 - - -
Filter pressure, differential mm.Hg - max 25 - - -
Tube deposit rating (visual) - max <3 - - -
CONTAMINATIONS
Existent Gum mg/100ml max 7 131 D361 -
Water reacoin, interface rating - max 16 258 D1084 -
Fuel with static dissipater additives - min 75 - D3648 -
Fuel without static dissipater additive - min 85 - - -
CONDUCTY
Electrical conductivity p3/m - Report - - -