Jp54 is an abbreviation for “Jet Propulsion (JP) andColonial Grade 54 During the refining process only 15% of the crude oil is made up of JP54 the rest of the grade is used for different types of byproducts such as plastic.
This was developed by JP Morgan Colonial grade JP54 was replaced by AVGAS or known as AVGAS100LL, it’s the number one low sulfer content kerosene used worldwide. National standards apply for aviation fuels in many countries including Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, China, Spain and Sweden.
These are held in alignment with one of the key standards listed below.
The major civil standards used internationally are:
|UK||DEF STAN91-91||Jet A1|
|USA||ASTM D1655||Jet A1, Jet A|
|Russia / CIS||GOST 10227-86||TS-1|
JP54 powers gas turbines aircraft engines. Jet A and A-1 have specifications that can be used in fuel worldwide. Jet B is used in cold weather elements. The most common fuel is an unleaded/paraffin oil-based fuel classified as JET A-1, which is produced to an internationally standardized set of specifications.
In the United States only, a version of JET A-1 known as JET A is also used.
The only other jet fuel that is commonly used in civilian aviation is called JET B. JET B is a fuel in the naptha-kerosene region that is used for its enhanced cold-weather performance. However, JET B's lighter composition makes it more dangerous to handle, and it is thus restricted only to areas where its cold-weather characteristics are absolutely necessary.
Jet fuel is a mixture of a large number of different hydrocarbons. Kerosene-type jet fuel (including Jet A and Jet A-1) has a carbon number distribution between about 8 and 16 carbon numbers (carbon atoms per molecule); wide-cut or naphtha-type jet fuel (including Jet B), between about 5 and 15 carbon numbers.
TYPE JET A-1
Jet A-1 is a kerosine grade of fuel suitable for most turbine engined aircraft. It is produced to a stringent internationally agreed standard, has a flash point above 38°C (100°F) and a freeze point maximum of -47°C. It is widely available outside the U.S.A. Jet A-1 meets the requirements of British specification DEF STAN 91-91 (Jet A-1), (formerly DERD 2494 (AVTUR)), ASTM specification D1655 (Jet A-1) and IATA Guidance Material (Kerosine Type), NATO Code F-35.
TYPE JET A
Jet A is a similar kerosine type of fuel, produced to an ASTM specification and normally only available in the U.S.A. It has the same flash point as Jet A-1 but a higher freeze point maximum (-40°C). It is supplied against the ASTM D1655 (Jet A) specification.
TYPE JET B
Jet B is a distillate covering the naphtha and kerosine fractions. It can be used as an alternative to Jet A-1 but because it is more difficult to handle (higher flammability), there is only significant demand in very cold climates where its better cold weather performance is important.
In Canada it is supplied against the Canadian Specification CAN/CGSB 3.23
JP-4 is the military equivalent of Jet B with the addition of corrosion inhibitor and anti-icing additives; it meets the requirements of the U.S. Military Specification MIL-PRF-5624S Grade JP-4. JP-4 also meets the requirements of the British Specification DEF STAN 91-88 AVTAG/FSII (formerly DERD 2454),where FSII stands for Fuel Systems Icing Inhibitor. NATO Code F-40.
JP-5 is a high flash point kerosine meeting the requirements of the U.S. Military Specification MIL-PRF-5624S Grade JP-5. JP-5 also meets the requirements of the British Specification DEF STAN 91-86 AVCAT/FSII (formerly DERD 2452). NATO Code F-44.
JP-8 is the military equivalent of Jet A-1 with the addition of corrosion inhibitor and anti-icing additives; it meets the requirements of the U.S. Military Specification MIL-T-83188D. JP-8 also meets the requirements of the British Specification DEF STAN 91-87 AVTUR/FSII (formerly DERD 2453). NATO Code F-34.
|Antioxidant in hydro processed fuel||mg/l||min||17||max||24|
|Antioxidant non hydro processed fuel||mg/l||-||-||max||24|
|Static dissipater first doping ASA-3||mg/l||-||-||max||1|
|Specific energy, net||mj/kg||min||18.4||-||D4808|
|Initial Boiling Point||Centigrade||max||Report||123||D96|
|10% vol at ºC||-||-||240||-||-||-|
|20% vol at ºC||-||-||Report||-||-||-|
|50% vol at ºC||-||-||Report||-||-||-|
|80% vol at ºC||-||max||Report||-||-||-|
|Density at 15 ºC||Kg/m2||max||-||180/385||D1298||-|
|LOW TEMPERATURES PROPERTIES|
|Corrosion, copper (2 hrs at 100ºC)||-||max||1||154||D130||-|
|Corrosion, silver (4 hrs at 50ºC)||-||max||1||227||-||-|
|Thermal stability control, Temp. 280ºC||-||-||323||-||-||-|
|Filter pressure, differential mm.Hg||-||max||25||-||-||-|
|Tube deposit rating (visual)||-||max||<3||-||-||-|
|Water reacoin, interface rating||-||max||16||258||D1084||-|
|Fuel with static dissipater additives||-||min||75||-||D3648||-|
|Fuel without static dissipater additive||-||min||85||-||-||-|